The small molecules, generated by the exoenzyme activity, enter what type of enzyme is used to digest starch cells and are utilized for various cellular functions. Very limited information is available about the original discovery of exoenzymes. The book “Intracellular Enzymes: A Course of Lectures Given in the Physiological,” by Horace Vernon is thought to be the first publication using this word in that year. Vernon to have been discovered by scientists Briike and Kiihne before 1908. Many bacteria use digestive enzymes to break down nutrients in their surroundings.
With either process, pathogens can attack the host cell’s structure and function, as well as its nucleic DNA. The different classes of amylases are α-amylases, β-amylases, and glucoamylases. In humans, amylases are secreted by both the pancreas and salivary glands with both sources of the enzyme required for complete starch hydrolysis. 1876, forty years after pepsin. Due to its role in the small intestine, trypsin works at an optimal pH of 8. Left:amylase bacterial assay on a starch medium. A indicates a positive result, D indicates a negative result. Right: lipase bacterial assay on an olive oil medium. If a reaction does not occur, this means that the bacteria does not create an exoenzyme capable of interacting with the surroundings.
If a reaction does occur, it becomes clear that the bacteria does possess an exoenzyme, and which macromolecule is hydrolyzed determines its identity. If the bacteria has lipase, a clear streak will form in the agar, and the dye will fill the gap, creating a dark blue halo around the cleared area. These applications include the breakdown of agricultural and forestry wastes, working as a feed additive to facilitate greater nutrient uptake by livestock, and as an ingredient in bread making to improve the rise and texture of the bread. The range of uses of lipases encompasses production of biopolymers, generation of cosmetics, use as a herbicide, and as an effective solvent. However, perhaps the most well known use of lipases in this field is its use in the production of biodiesel fuel. Cellulases and hemicellulases are used in these industrial applications due to their ability to hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose components found in these materials. In addition to the microorganisms ability to digest and absorb the pollutants, their secreted exoenzymes play an important role in many bioremediation strategies. There are many examples of the use of bacteria for this purpose and their exoenzymes encompass many different classes of bacterial enzymes.