Use of enzymes in medical industry

By | 14.01.2018

January 1, 2017, as a result of new FDA Veterinary Feed Directive. This practice has been banned in Europe since 2006. This article looks at antibiotic use for growth promotion and the situation in the United States and does not cover therapy, prophylaxis or metaphylaxis in Europe. Some other countries outside Europe can use antimicrobials to increase the growth rates use of enzymes in medical industry livestock, poultry, and other farmed animals, although these pharmaceuticals do not always have to be administered by a veterinarian. Other drugs may be used only under strict limits, and some organizations and authorities seek to further restrict the use of some or all drugs in animals.

Without antibiotics there would be supply problems of animal protein for the human population”. In 1910 in the United States, a meat shortage resulted in protests and boycotts. After this and other shortages, the public demanded government research into stabilization of food supplies. Since the 1900s, livestock production on United States farms has had to rear larger quantities of animals over a short period of time to meet new consumer demands. Factory farming or the use of high intensity feedlots originated in the late 19th century when advances in technology and science allowed for mass production of livestock. Global agriculture production doubled four times within 1820 and 1975, feeding one billion in 1800 and up to 6. Along with the new large animal densities came the threat of disease, therefore requiring a greater disease control of these animals.

United States was for non-therapeutic purposes in agricultural production. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. However, any antibiotics deemed medically important to humans by the CDC are illegal to use as growth promoters in the U. Illegal for this use in the U. The use of antibiotics to increase the growth of pigs is most studied of all livestock. Studies have shown that administering low doses of antibiotics in livestock feed improves growth rate, reduces mortality and morbidity, and improves reproductive performance.

It is estimated that over one-half of the antibiotics produced and sold in the United States is used as a feed additive. Although it is still not completely understood why and how antibiotics increase the growth rate of pigs, possibilities include metabolic effects, disease control effects, and nutritional effects. While subtherapeutic use has many benefits for raising swine, there is growing concern that this practice leads to increased antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria are resistant to one or more microbial agents that are usually used to treat infection. There are three stages in the possible emergence and continuation of antibiotic resistance: genetic change, antibiotic selection, and spread of antibiotic resistance. Organic beef comes from cattle who have not been fed antibiotics. The use of drugs in food animals is regulated in nearly all countries.

Historically, this has been to prevent alteration or contamination of meat, milk, eggs and other products with toxins that are harmful to humans. Treating a sick animal with drugs may lead to some of those drugs remaining in the animal when it is slaughtered or milked. Scientific experiments provide data that shows how long a drug is present in the body of an animal and what the animal’s body does to the drug. Of particular concern are drugs that may be passed into milk or eggs. By the use of ‘drug withdrawal periods’ before slaughter or the use of milk or eggs from treated animals, veterinarians and animal owners ensure that the meat, milk and eggs is free of contamination.

It is illegal in the US to administer drugs or feed substances to animals if they have been shown to cause cancer. One of the main restrictions is the amount that is administered to animals in the industry. The amount distributed is also altered throughout the lifespan of livestock in order to meet specific growth needs. Legality of the use of specific drugs in animal medicine varies according to location. Federal law requires laypersons to use drugs only in the manner listed. It is illegal in the US for any layperson to administer any drug to a food animal in a way not specific to the drug label. These drugs can be applied as sprays, creams, injections, oral pills or fluids, or as a feed additive, depending on the drug and the label. In December 2013, the FDA updated its regulations to try to begin reducing use of antibiotics for growth enhancement. Currently few policies, regulations and laws exist that promote limitation of antibiotic use on factory farms.