Microbial enzymes and their applications ppt

By | 17.12.2017

На сайте собрано множество порно видео, порно фото а так же порно рассказы и это все совершенно бесплатно! Чтобы выполнить поиск, нажмите “Ввод”. The smallest objects that the unaided human eye can see are about 0. That means that under the right conditions, you might be able to see an ameoba proteus, a human egg, and a paramecium without using magnification. A magnifying glass can help you to see them microbial enzymes and their applications ppt clearly, but they will still look tiny.

Smaller cells are easily visible under a light microscope. It’s even possible to make out structures within the cell, such as the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Light microscopes use a system of lenses to magnify an image. The power of a light microscope is limited by the wavelength of visible light, which is about 500 nm. The most powerful light microscopes can resolve bacteria but not viruses. To see anything smaller than 500 nm, you will need an electron microscope. Electron microscopes shoot a high-voltage beam of electrons onto or through an object, which deflects and absorbs some of the electrons. Resolution is still limited by the wavelength of the electron beam, but this wavelength is much smaller than that of visible light.

The most powerful electron microscopes can resolve molecules and even individual atoms. The label on the nucleotide is not quite accurate. How can an X chromosome be nearly as big as the head of the sperm cell? No, this isn’t a mistake. Second, the DNA in a sperm cell is super-condensed and compacted into a highly dense form. Third, the head of a sperm cell is almost all nucleus. Most of the cytoplasm has been squeezed out in order to make the sperm an efficient torpedo-like swimming machine. The X chromosome is shown here in a condensed state, as it would appear in a cell that’s going through mitosis. It has also been duplicated, so there are actually two identical copies stuck together at their middles.

A human sperm cell contains just one copy each of 23 chromosomes. Histones organize the DNA and keep it from getting tangled, much like thread wrapped around a spool. But they also add a lot of bulk. DNA down to about one-sixth the volume of a mitotic chromosome. The size of the carbon atom is based on its van der Waals radius. Molecular Machinery: A Tour of the Protein Data Bank. DNA packaging and organization in mammalian spermatozoa: comparison with somatic cells.

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